Plastics are synthetic polymers derived from fossil oil and largely resistant to biodegradation. Polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) represent ∼92% of total plastic production. PE is largely utilized in packaging, representing ∼40% of total demand for plastic products (www.plasticseurope.org) with over a trillion plastic bags used every year . Plastic production has increased exponentially in the past 50 years (Figure S1A in Supplemental Information, published with this article online). In the 27 EU countries plus Norway and Switzerland up to 38% of plastic is discarded in landfills, with the rest utilized for recycling (26%) and energy recovery (36%) via combustion (www.plasticseurope.org), carrying a heavy environmental impact. Therefore, new solutions for plastic degradation are urgently needed. We report the fast bio-degradation of PE by larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella, producing ethylene glycol.
Kenji Fukushima, Xiaodong Fang, David Alvarez-Ponce, Huimin Cai, Lorenzo Carretero-Paulet, Cui Chen, Tien-Hao Chang, Kimberly M. Farr, Tomomichi Fujita, Yuji Hiwatashi, Yoshikazu Hoshi, Takamasa Imai, Masahiro Kasahara, Pablo Librado, Likai Mao, Hitoshi Mori, Tomoaki Nishiyama, Masafumi Nozawa, Gergő Pálfalvi, Stephen T. Pollard, Julio Rozas, Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia, David Sankoff, Tomoko F. Shibata, Shuji Shigenobu, Naomi Sumikawa, Taketoshi Uzawa, Meiying Xie, Chunfang Zheng, David D. Pollock, Victor A. Albert, Shuaicheng Li & Mitsuyasu Hasebe
Carnivorous plants exploit animals as a nutritional source and have inspired long-standing questions about the origin and evolution of carnivory-related traits. To investigate the molecular bases of carnivory, we sequenced the genome of the heterophyllous pitcher plant Cephalotus follicularis, in which we succeeded in regulating the developmental switch between carnivorous and non-carnivorous leaves. Transcriptome comparison of the two leaf types and gene repertoire analysis identified genetic changes associated with prey attraction, capture, digestion and nutrient absorption. Analysis of digestive fluid proteins from C. follicularis and three other carnivorous plants with independent carnivorous origins revealed repeated co-options of stress-responsive protein lineages coupled with convergent amino acid substitutions to acquire digestive physiology. These results imply constraints on the available routes to evolve plant carnivory.
Nel 2017 un incendio catastrofico distrusse gran parte delle aree forestali del Vesuvio. Grazie a un monitoraggio dei pipistrelli iniziato prima di quell’evento, siamo stati in grado di misurare la risposta della comunità di chirotteri con un confronto prima-dopo praticamente unico in letteratura. L’articolo è appena uscito: L. Ancillotto, L. Bosso, P. Conti & D. Russo (2020). Resilient responses by bats to a severe wildfire: conservation implications. Animal Conservation. Se vi interessa, richiedetelo tramite Research Gate.
In 2017, a catastrophic wildfire destroyed most of Mt Vesuvius’s forest. Thanks to an ongoing long-term bat monitoring programme, we could establish the bat community response through a before-after comparison, something so far unique in the scientific literature. Find out more by requesting the article through Research Gate: L. Ancillotto, L. Bosso, P. Conti & D. Russo (2020). Resilient responses by bats to a severe wildfire: conservation implications. Animal Conservation.
Wildfires shape ecosystems globally, yet little is known on their effects on wildlife distribution and spatial behaviour. We used bats as models to test the effects of fire on ecosystems because they are multi-habitat specialists and feature ecological and life traits such as behavioural plasticity and longevity that make them able to respond to both short-and long-term environmental changes. We aimed at testing the effects of a severe wildfire on a Mediterranean bat assemblage in terms of occupancy, activity and individual fitness. Here, we measure the effects of fire on activity levels and occupancy by a Mediterranean bat assemblage at the Vesuvius National Park, in Southern Italy, over 4 years, encompassing a year when a severe wildfire occurred. By comparing bat occurrence and activity at burnt versus unburnt sites with a Before-After/Control-Impact approach, we found that bat responses to wildfires are species specific and depend on the time elapsed since the fire. Species that rely more strongly on forest areas showed a strong short-term adverse response in terms of occupancy and activity, while species adapted to open habitats showed no response 1 year after the wildfire. However, most species showed a general positive effect due to the passage of fire 2 years after its occurrence , probably because of vegetation regrowth. The wildfire event was also associated with reduced reproduction in at least one species, and to worse individual body conditions 1 year after the wildfire. Our results show that most bats in a Mediterranean ecosystem show resilience to the occurrence of fire, yet many species show negative short-term responses by altering their spatial behaviour and decreasing their investment in reproduction. Future increases in fire occurrence and intensity due to climate change may alter bat assemblages and impair population viability in the long term, hampering the fundamental ecosystem services provided by structured bat communities.
Gabriele Fusto, Luigi Bennardo1, Ester Del Duca, Daniela Mazzuca, Federica Tamburi, Cataldo Patruno, Steven Paul Nisticò
Despite the disrepute spiders have had for centuries, their bite is a rare occurrence. In the Mediterranean area, only two of the numerous known species are considered of medical significance: Latrodectus tredecimguttatus and Loxosceles rufescens. Spider bites have no pathognomonic signs or symptoms, therefore most diagnoses are presumptive; a spider bite can only be diagnosed when a spider (seen at the time of the bite) is collected and identified by an expert, since most physicians and patients are unable to recognize a certain spider species or distinguish spiders from other arthropods. Skin lesions of uncertain etiology are too often attributed to spider bites. In most cases, these are actually skin and soft-tissue infections, allergic reactions, dermatoses etc. Misdiagnosing a wound as a spider bite can lead to delays in appropriate care, cause adverse or even fatal outcomes and have medical-legal implications. Concerningly, misinformation on spider bites also affects the medical literature and it appears there is lack of awareness on current therapeutic indications for verified bites.
Sara Castelletti, Aude Coupel-Ledru, Italo Granato, Carine Palaffre, Llorenç Cabrera-Bosquet, Chiara Tonelli, Stéphane D. Nicolas, François Tardieu, Claude Welcker, Lucio Conti
Expansion of the maize growing area was central for food security in temperate regions. In addition to the suppression of the short-day requirement for floral induction, it required breeding for a large range of flowering time that compensates the effect of South-North gradients of temperatures. Here we show the role of a novel florigen gene, ZCN12, in the latter adaptation in cooperation with ZCN8. Strong eQTLs of ZCN8 and ZCN12, measured in 327 maize lines, accounted for most of the genetic variance of flowering time in platform and field experiments. ZCN12 had a strong effect on flowering time of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants; a path analysis showed that it directly affected maize flowering time together with ZCN8. The allelic composition at ZCN QTLs showed clear signs of selection by breeders. This suggests that florigens played a central role in ensuring a large range of flowering time, necessary for adaptation to temperate areas.
Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. These cookies do not store any personal information.
Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website.